> The front page shows the main indicators. Beneath each one there is additional detail, drilling down into why the indicator is important, how it has changed and how it was calculated. The pages also link through to the data so that you can explore it for yourself.
Just the facts (well, it's a start anyways) presented visually (presumably honestly) so the the meaning is obvious, with the ability to drill down to learn why the numbers are important, where the data comes from and how to get to it yourself, as well as links to where to learn more. Beautiful.
Under democratic governments, people need to largely align their opinions before we can finally start doing something about this problem, and I believe this is a crucial part of the type of persuasion it is going to take. I think there is still room for improvement, but I haven't seen this approach taken before and hope it becomes more popular. In fact, I believe the "pro" side should team up and produce one single authoritative website, and advertise the hell out of it - the fact that such a resource doesn't exist has always added to my skepticism.
That's not "the" current approach, that's your selective perception and/or framing. Democracy restrains governments, not people. At some point "failing to convince" has to translate to "shun and withdraw support from". We can't possibly throw away the human species because "some people weren't convinced there is an issue", as if they were children and the others adults with a burden of convincing, which does not exist. Climate change has been warned about since I can remember, it's certainly been a topic in the last 20 years. At this point, no adult has a solid excuse anymore.
Democracy doesn't restrain people, really? The issues are numerous, but each person gets one vote for one party/person, effectively they are approving all of the subsequent decisions of the party they've voted for, when what they're really doing is accepting the aggregate of their promises.
Shun and withdraw support all you want, is that producing results, or not?
If your approach isn't producing results, am I crazy for suggesting we think more deeply about strategy?
Not socially, not when it comes to the individual relations. I didn't mean convicing or voting are pointless, but it's not the end-all, be-all. It works for the lucky cases, but the bulk of the problem will require stepping on toes and deciding between mutually exclusive things.
Nobody who denies climate change actually wants to grow up in a refugee camp in 100 years and die at age 10, after 10 years of horror, to name just one of the consequences. Or in a society ravaged by Neonazis (unless they're Neonazis, then fuck what they want). So it's up to their betters to enforce their lack of consequence and intellectual integrity on them. They can't leave it at "failed to convince". Which, by definition, contains prior attempts to convince, just not an infinite number of them.
> If your approach isn't producing results, am I crazy for suggesting we think more deeply about strategy?
Who will "convince Trump", for example? You are simply are assuming good faith, functioning humans on the other hand without mental health defects, so what's your answer to where that isn't the case?
> Not socially, not when it comes to the individual relations.
My democracy has produced a very long list of laws that I must follow or they will put me in jail.
> I didn't mean convicing or voting are pointless, but it's not the end-all, be-all.
I absolutely agree with you on this. As I see it Democracy as it is is largely a fraud, when compared to how it is advertised to be.
> So it's up to their betters to enforce their lack of consequence and intellectual integrity on them. They can't leave it at "failed to convince".
Oh but they can leave it at "failed to convince", is that not more or less precisely where we are at, with little sign of a likelihood we'll be moving beyond it any time soon? This is the point I am trying to make, that no climate change enthusiast one seems willing to even consider. The irony of the situation is delicious.
> Who will "convince Trump", for example?
It's not Trump that needs convincing, it is the public. Understanding in detail why people voted for Trump in the first place would have yielded very valuable knowledge that could have been used towards persuading people to support fighting climate change, but instead we seem to have chosen to use our imaginations to decide why people voted for him. People who behave this way, which is mostly everyone I've encountered, are unintelligent in this respect, and the same style of thinking seems to be what is being deployed in the public relations campaign against climate change. I wish you luck, but it doesn't seem to be producing much change, so I will continue to advocate for improvements in strategy.
> You are simply are assuming good faith
Incorrect, I am assuming nothing, except where I have explicitly noted. You on the other hand, *seem to be assuming bad faith. You may be right, but I would recommend studying the matter to find out for sure.
> so what's your answer to where that isn't the case?
As always, I recommend studying the situation: find out the detailed reasons why people do not support climate change, study what the failures seem to be in why the current messaging is unsuccessful, make iterative changes to the strategy, and measure results as you go. If people thought of the situation more like playing a video game, perhaps that would diminish the sense of identity involved and result in the ability to think more clearly (for example, thinking of people as having mental health defects).
I asked you how you would convince Trump, as an example of a specific individual we both "know". Your answer is to study someone else, to just assume I haven't thought or observed anything, and that I just declare people as evil or deficient because it's easier. I am not a "climate change enthusiast", my identity in this is zero. You might say I think I see the writing on the wall about forcing humanity through the eye of a needle into endless totalitarianism, and hey, I write a lot about that, but if all that just resolved itself, I would be so glad that I could just sing and hum and take nature photographs all day.
That not all of this is based on misunderstandings and able to be resolved peacefully is not a happy insight, but it's what my data points to, if you will. Just take the stories about (not always) elderly relatives being radicalized by some fake news on FB: these may be well meaning people, but they are in the clutches of not so benign people. Confront and overcome those, and then we'll see how much remaining confusion even exists.
Last but not least, if someone gives their child poison because they're either too ignorant or too evil to know better, do you a.) first try to convince them b.) take the child away by force, then explain to them why you did it? What if it is your child? Yes, it's not a clear cut imminent threat with climate change, but we'll get there. It's not just about the people who "have a right to arguments that are sweet to their gums to make them stop destroying our future voluntarily", it's also about the people after them.
But if you closely on the ice cap graph for example you’ll notice an increased oscillation in more recent data. This has been described as a sign of a complex system reaching the end of the linear response, a tipping point if you will.
You’ll need to listen to the experts to interpret the data, and what most of them seems worried about is the non-linear changes.
For instance, which sounds more feasible - a compagin to convince a climate denying politician of the error of their ways and to change how they do things, or a campaign to just vote them out by ensuring the highest possible turnout among people who already agree with you?
In the Netherlands we cut the construction of new buildings in half, the livestock is about to get cut in half, the speedlimit is cut by 25%, gas prices for heating homes is going up significantly, flights are cut, a new airport is at the risk of never opening. Those are actions that impact people significantly. We are about to lose hundreds of thousands of jobs and a lot of people are going on welfare, will have to trade their paid-for home for small social rental housing and will not have money left for anything besides food and maybe going to a cinema twice a year.
The actions mentioned above are necessary but I don't blame people for resisting those changes. If you are not seeing any chance in the climate but the government is pushing for you to lose your job over it, I can understand that you will get angry.
27.000 people in construction are about to lose their job. Many of them are contractors who are not eligible for welfare, and many of them are too poor for unemployment insurance, so they will probably end up homeless.
As for the airport: as someone who lives under the flight route I really do hope that it isn't going to be opened. These planes are going to be flying really low and adding to the already bad air pollution. All so someone can fly short haul with a budget airline.
The science of basic probability math is settled for a few hundred years now but people still buying lottery tickets and playing roulette.
What is so surprising about that?
If you're genuinely curious, I'll give you some insight into the mind of a natural skeptic. I am very suspicious of movements based on expressions like "the science is settled" - in this context, what does "the science" and "is settled" even mean, precisely? No doubt, you and many others can provide a reasonable and plausible answer to that question, but do the explanations match up, and is this science?
I personally believe climate change is real, but based on a wide variety of reasons I am not convinced all players in this movement are informed and acting completely in good faith. When large masses of humans seem to start thinking the same, without really thinking (their opinions being based on propaganda, not science - signs of this already showing up in this page), I get nervous. YMMV
I also perceive that being downvoted every single time I honestly express this genuine sentiment, or dare to point out uncomfortable facts, further strengthens the resolve of my resistant attitude, and based on an extensive reading of forum discussions on these and other contentious topics I suspect I'm not the only one who feels this way. Human psychology is a hell of a drug - ignore it at your peril, social engineers.
So, the thousands of scientists the world over who have studied this extensively and produced some of the largest bodies of research for a field on a specific topic aren't really thinking? And when they communicate that to the public, the public should what, doubt literally everything this relatively unempowered group has to say while oil companies spend far more money and influence keeping this argument alive to ensure nothing is done?
What degree of confidence are you looking for, and is the IPCC not good enough for you? Why do you feel like all the people you disagree with "aren't thinking"?
No. You have formed an incorrect conclusion of my beliefs.
> And when they communicate that to the public, the public should what, doubt literally everything this relatively unempowered group has to say while oil companies spend far more money and influence keeping this argument alive to ensure nothing is done?
> What degree of confidence are you looking for, and is the IPCC not good enough for you?
I've said nothing to criticize the IPCC.
> Why do you feel like all the people you disagree with "aren't thinking"?
Your comment is an excellent example of what I'm talking about. Observe how significant of a role your imagination (heuristics) played in your interpretation of what I was saying. Here I will daringly speculate a bit.....observe, right now, if there is an emotional reaction in your body right now as you are reading these words. Also observe if the magnitude of that reaction intensified while reading that last sentence.
Observe the downvotes (as of the time of writing) on my comment here: https://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=21482841 Offers of advice to learn from forum discussion like this and improve the delivery and persuasive value of the "pro" message is literally downvoted! Is this thinking, or is something more complex going on here?
Based on all of the conversations I've read on this topic, I perceive an authoritarian streak in this movement (the science is settled, the discussion is over - assimilate or gtfo) that puts a bad taste in my mouth.
But that's fine, all of this is nothing more than my personal opinion (and you know what they say about opinions) - I'm not demanding you behave a certain way or not. You and your teammates will reap what you sow, I consider myself mostly just an outspoken observer - my interest is not so much in climate change itself, I am interested in the psychology of the discussion. To me, this is the interesting part, and I also speculate that this is where the solution to the current impasse lies (and not just wrt to climate change). But, this idea seems to an extremely unpopular, worthy of nothing other than scorn, and certainly not of consideration. Although.....I do now see there are others showing up in this thread that recognize the very same problem I see. Might others be waking up and seeing what is right in front of their eyes?
I shall leave you to your current approach. There's an extremely strong sense of self-confidence in your team, maybe completely ignoring psychology and merely repeating "the science" over and over, while insulting and downvoting anyone who dares disagree in any way (or offer sincere advice from a different perspective), is the optimal approach after all. Time will tell if the "chosen" tactics will bear fruit, for the sake of all of us let's hope you guessed correctly.
Another way of stating this is: it may be in your best interests to consider the possibility that your dispute is not with me, but with reality itself, and if you find that idea offensive, be careful that you have your heuristics on a short leash.
EDIT: Well how about that, a quick downvote. I certainly didn't expect that.
But you won't engage with the science. You're just probing at basic problems of epistemology and hand-wringing. Literally no one can argue against that and it isn't productive. What about the science do you want to discuss?
Your heuristics need more tuning. I've engaged with the science, and I will do so again in the future.
> You're just probing at basic problems of epistemology and hand-wringing.
Incorrect. I was pointing out some reasons for my skepticism. I literally said that.
> Literally no one can argue against that and it isn't productive.
If climate change enthusiasts choose to ignore those who explain why they're not jumping on board the train, and therefore fail to gain anything useful from the conversation, the fault is not mine. If you prefer to carry on with your same approach rather than constantly improve it, be my guest.
> What about the science do you want to discuss?
I'm not particularly interested in the science, it seems clear enough to me to justify action, at the very least from a risk perspective. I'm more interested in what the underlying cause is of the inability for the cheerleaders to accomplish anything beyond attracting attention. If this problem is real, at some point you're going to have to figure out how to get people to take action. If you can't figure that out, perhaps you should be open to new ideas, particularly if they are coming from someone who is not responsive to your current techniques but willing to explain why.
And you presume that I am arguing on behalf of authority, as opposed to giving an example of a "large mass of humans who believe the same thing". You haven't discredited them, you have only mocked me for choosing to believe in an expert body. That is fine, and we should always question authorities and their methods.
But flippantly saying "How is this not making an appeal to authority" is frustrating. Yea, so what? Are the authorities wrong? Unless you can answer that essential question your needling on this point is irrelevant.
>And you presume that I am arguing on behalf of authority
I mean.... yes?
I'm sorry you find the question frustrating to answer. But your post revolves around trusting the IPCC because they are an authority.
I think that's a weak argument because if a guy doesn't know what the letters IPCC mean, you're not going to win them over. I think it's more effective to be open to the idea that maybe we're all wrong, and work from that instead of the opposite. You know, healthy skepticism, science. If you approach it like that, you can still work towards all the same goals without being divisive.
The way we're all just supposed to never question the authorities or sacred texts is how this has become a wedge issue.
Ain't nobody got time for that, so these kind of arguments are all that's left. Unless you want some recommendations?
But basically, increasing CO2 will increase the energy input into the system, that is teenager level science. Where the energy goes and what the consequences are are increasingly more complicated and less understood the more processes are involved.
"The industrial activities that our modern civilization depends upon have raised atmospheric carbon dioxide levels from 280 parts per million to 400 parts per million in the last 150 years. The panel also concluded there's a better than 95 percent probability that human-produced greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have caused much of the observed increase in Earth's temperatures over the past 50 years."
Feel free to read the summary for policy makers: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/02/ipcc_wg3_ar5...
You can ask whatever questions you like. Those of us who aren't dismissive of climate science have been able to get answers like yours without problem.
We're coming out of an ice age after all; I see nothing in the current warming that points to an aberration from what could be natural, asides from the much hysteria about greenhouse gases.
As I grow older, I am more and more convinced that the second category of people (most anti vaxxers, hard core religious types etc) cannot be convinced of anything, and that includes usage of hard facts and science. Even if they could be, the amount of time and effort would be enormous, so we are better off talking to the first category of people instead.
The problem though - the people who tend to close their eyes and ears to anything other than what they already believe in, also usually tend to be the loudest :(
I think sites like this help. Quite a poor job has been done of pushing the data to the front and keeping publishing it without changing the metrics or methodology and I'd imagine most people will respect that eventually. You can't win everyone.
That said, I'd have been crucified in school for starting a graph from a number other than zero (CO2 PPM) because of the impression it creates, I'd probably have got away with the route round that the difference graphs employ though.
Our observation is, that in the last 200 years the earth warmed faster than ever in its history. The fastest warming cycle before that took 4000 years for the same temperature.
So what really is settled is that there is scary fast warming that coincides with population growth and industrialization. This is not a theory, this is measurements.
Because a temperature rise this fast is kinda scary and we might wanna stop it if there is even the tiniest chance it is our own fault, scientists started to create models that try to explain the climate ever more acurrately.
Because they are models of a (in the true sense of the word) global system that is inherently chaotic in nature deriving very accurate predictions is hard, but the measurements are warming while we are at it and most predictions haven’t been that far off.
People who argue against men made climate change honestly just have no idea about the climate usually and often not even about the consequences. This is why you will get xenophobes arguing against climate change although they should be against it, if they are afraid of big amounts of foreign people fleeing their countries.
In the end the question is: if you are not sure whether climate change is manmade — how much of a chance would you take? Or is it that these people don’t want it to be real?
We might want to stop it even if it's not our fault!
If you dismiss anything uninteresting as no longer being climate science, then we end up in a no-true-Scotsman loop. I was responding to the question "what climate change science is settled", not "what are active research topics".
Is the global mean temp for the earth hotter:
1. Right now
2. During the Bronze Age
What parts of the entire field of psychology from the last 50 years have not failed to replicate?
What parts of nutrition science from the last 50 years are useful, or at least predictive?
What assumptions were we certain about in anthropology and history 50 years ago that we now know are completely wrong?
It feels so surreal that people think science is something you settle, at all. I cannot imagine the confusion that would lead an educated person into in thinking that.
1. Is global warming happening right now?
2. Are humans responsible for it?
The answer to those two questions is absolutely unreservedly settled: it's "yes". It's as settled as any question in science can be, it's as settled as the fact that electrons exist.
Of course I have a mental ranking of which sciences are to be trusted and how much, but we can't expect the general public to take such an interest. It's just all science lumped into one big bucket, and it's not pretty.
The answer to all three is "yes", but "yes" isn't a useful answer. "How much?" has a lot less consensus (and if history is any guide, a lot less confidence).
The problem becomes when people roar in about 1 and 2 and then make somewhat outrageous demands for 4, without justifying 4, or often 3.
This is what upsets most people, I think, even if they are not clever enough to articulate what's going on. There's a motte of defensible science that pushes for a much less defensible list of adjacent social causes, and then any pushback on the conclusions is easily painted as being "anti-science."
If you have no estimate of the cost of climate change, then you also have no business proposing costly preventative measures.
We don't know how fast the Earth is warming and we don't know how much of that warming is anthropogenic. The best "thermometers" we have are the UAH and RSS data sets, and they disagree by nearly 50% and historical data is constantly adjusted.
The only science actually settled is: the Earth is warming, disconcertingly fast, and humans are a large part of the process. Anything else even slightly more in depth is definitely not settled.
This is exactly what I said. In 2., not that humans are 100% all the cause of global warming, but definitely the dominating factor.
1. At what rate is global warming happening?
2. How do current temperature trends compare to historical data?
3. What is the list of causes that may contribute to current trends, and how much influence does each cause have?
4. What are the implications if the current trend continues for 100 years?
5. What are the possible responses, how much does each cost, and how how many degrees temperature reduction do we estimate for each?
Case and point: the Met graph time scales are all cherry picked to maximise the 'visible trend' for a given activity - a rather unscientific and propagandistic approach, however good their intentions might be. In short - the charts are 'Bad Science'.
Ironically whenever I see such cherry-picking, or serious people asking 16 year old Swedish girls about 'what we should do about Nuclear Energy' - I can only be made skeptical.
We have to balance the needs of truth and actual science with the need to communicate this information into the commons.
Any evidence for this?
You can use adverbs like "absolutely" and "unreservedly" but that doesn't make your statement greater than an opinion.
Being responsible for about all of it makes it possible for us to be in control. Not being responsible would make the situation akin to being hit by a meteorite.
Some people might find that preferable, since they do not have to change, but I find it far scarier.
And when you have decades of fabricated political identity that says that we can't switch from fossil fuels and we can't change any aspect of our life that threatens the profits of a few very wealthy corporations, acknowledging these facts also means going against one's own identity.
The very same propagandists that let tobacco companies persist with false claims about smoking and cancer came back for fossil fuel companies' defense with a highly honed bag of tricks.
That's why we see massive anti-science responses in these comments, just like every media mention of climate change brings out hoards of denialist a to barrage the media outlet and scientists that show up: people perceive it as a personal attack on them and act accordingly.
Yes, that event will cause the sun to start burning helium instead, and will swell to a red giant approximately the radius of the orbit of Mars.
In about 4-5 billion years.
* What is humanity's effect on global warming?
* What meteorological and ecological effects does global warming have?
* What is the magnitude of impact of hypothetical changes to human behavior?
I know this is flippant, but the answers are all generally pretty well-known
In 2008, computer models from Naval Postgraduate School, NASA, Institute of Oceanology, and Polish Academy of Science predicted ice-free Artic summers by 2013.  The study was prominently cited in Al Gore's acceptance of the Noble Prize, which was awarded for his dedicated advocacy of climate change science.
In 2013, the US Dept of Energy and US Navy predicted it would be gone before 2019. .
For more ice-free Artic science, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arctic_sea_ice_decline#Ice-fre...
Complicated systems are complicated. Science knows as much about climate change as it does about cholesterol.
"We predict X will happen sometime between 10 and 50 years from now, sorry about the high range of uncertainty"
"Welp, it has been ten years and one day and X didn't happen, THOSE SCIENTISTS WERE ALL LIARS, DON'T BELIEVE THE SCIENCE"
#3 Is the worst - if we have learnt anything in the past century, it is that our attempts at behavioural changes rarely work[i], and even when they do they often result in the opposite effect[ii].
[i] - My favourite book that points this out is Behavioural Adaptation and Road Safety. Well worth a read. Examples are many, such as in the case of criminalising texting while driving, which results in "crotching" (texting from a phone on your lap) and has resulted in increased accidents.
[ii] - Plenty of examples of this already on the environmental scene:
- let's use plastic bags to save trees! oh no plastic bags are worse!
- let's use diesel rather than petrol! Here, have subsidies! Oh no, it's making everything worse
- let's improve energy efficiency! oh no, now more energy is used! https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jevons_paradox
* What are the confidence intervals around the answers to the above? I.e., what are the probabilities of the ranges of answers to the above.
* Assuming that such probabilistic models have been running, unchanged, for at least a decade - how have these probabilities held up, where it is possible to measure the actual outcomes?
So much science-y science you just can't stand it.
edit: One morbidly humorous plot is this one:
P1, P2 and P3 are just.. kind of ridiculous with that emission drop. It's the kind of thing where you go 'haha sure' and then drown your thoughts in beer.
On the other hand, climate science has a control, which is climate measurements from all the years when humans were not polluting. Additionally, the measurements are actual mathematical levels of atmospheric properties or compound concentrations. The statistics here is a lot more solid. Philosophy, Anthropology and History are unfortunately not sciences in the rigorous sense.
Additionally, as looked down upon as anecdotes are, there are way too many of them to ignore. This year it has continued raining my home town into November. In my 25 years alive, it had never rained past Sept there. As much as anomalies do happen, these micro-level trends have only helped strengthen the case for climate change.
Sure, no science is ever settled. There is always a non-zero chance of even the most settled science being false. All of modern medicine can be bogus and homeopathy can be the real solution. Yes, there is a non-zero probability of that.
Skepticism is healthy, but when the odds of the contrary stance are so low, it helps to ask if deserves to be the level of questioning when the opposite stance offers almost zero evidence of the contrary. (apologies for weird sentence constructions. It sounded right in my head)
They are plotting the anomalies which tend to be much more useful for climate studies than the absolute values. e.g. [0,1]
The argument for doing it is likely because that's all the good data we have for each, but it would still be better to scale them the same way.
The older reports have even more of them.
I find this one especially informative:
There is historical data and the results for different emission pathways (timelines of human emissions).
EDIT: they say they measure everything with satellites, but that does not mean there is no incertitude in the measurement. No measurement is 100% accurate, and I'd certainly like to see the error range of satellites, when even GPS can't do better than +/- 30 cm precision.
A bit more information about the measurement process: https://research.csiro.au/slrwavescoast/sea-level/measuremen...
The "pro" side should read and learn from forum discussion like this (other issues pointed out: "All of the charts should use the same time scale. It's confusing and misleading to use different scales for each", "I wonder why the chart for CO2 concentration starts at 1960 vs 1850 for the global mean temperature difference", "Interesting graphs, but it's a little confusing that all but one of them use difference of the metric (i.e. relative values) instead of absolute values -- what and when are the differences relative to?"), making notes on criticisms and improving their presentations. I think "The definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again, but expecting different results" has some relevance here.
In particular, there's a precise relationship between a satellite's orbital period and its orbital radius (technically, its semi-major axis). A one-centimeter variation in altitude would result in a timing error of several hundred microseconds per day, which is enough to be detected using precise clocks and Doppler effect measurements.
Source or math for this? Because for any signal in the MHz range, I’m not sure I believe it necessarily.
Several hundred microseconds of a 150Mhz wave is several thousand cycles. That seems... questionable.
I did a check on a decibel calc with a 150Mhz signal and a 1 meter change was approx .01db... which is effectively undetectable to a real world application. Signal strength isn’t the same as propagation delay, I know. But yea...
I look forward to being corrected, but I can’t say that claim seems legitimate on its face.
EDIT: Nope. Did some probably bad math on this on my own, claim is very nonsense. Esp because the delta distance is in space where radio has the speed of light.
The timing numbers I quoted are purely based on the orbital motion of a (hypothetical) satellite, and have nothing to do with radio signals. Kepler's third law states that a body's orbital period varies in proportion to the 1.5th power of its semi-major axis. A 1cm altitude difference for a satellite in LEO corresponds to a change of about 1.5 parts per billion, which translates to a 2.2 ppb change in orbital period. As I said, this amounts to a cumulative difference of a couple hundred microseconds per day.
And it's actually much easier to precisely measure frequency differences than amplitude differences, if you have sufficiently accurate clocks. If you have a 150.000000MHz reference signal and a 150.000001MHz doppler-shifted signal, you can simply multiply them together to get a 1Hz beat frequency. Using this technique, you can measure phase differences that are considerably less than a single cycle of the original signal.
A major limiting factor, of course, is the stability and precision of your reference clocks. Apparently, the Jason-2 satellite that (until recently) was responsible for a lot of these measurements had a high-precision quartz oscillator that was stable to roughly one part per trillion: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30004875
Measuring the absolute position and velocity of a satellite is comparatively a lot more difficult. But with sufficiently precise Doppler relative-velocity measurements from multiple points, you can solve for both the orbital parameters and the slowly-varying perturbations with a high degree of accuracy.
I don't agree with this claim, unless you quantify it. This has already been touched upon before, for example here:
> "It depends upon the orbit and what time scales you are talking about. Satellites are subjected to many perturbations in its orbit. There are effects due to atmospheric drag, which as you'd expect affect lower satellite orbits more than higher orbits, but the atmosphere swells up all the time depending upon the level of solar activity. Gravitationally, the Earth is not a point mass and it has regions where the gravity gradient changes, which causes the satellite to get pulled one way or another (very slightly) as it orbits around."
They have a high quality map of the variations of gravity across the surface of the Earth. They also have a model that accounts for atmospheric drag.
That would be assuming your satellites have no measurement error over time (doubtful) and that all satellites used over several decades (since it's not a single satellite) have the same level of accuracy or bias over time. Unfortunately in practice it's very rarely the case and you end up averaging different measurements with different levels of inaccuracies and that does not make for a very convincing resulting single value.
Have you actually thoroughly researched the methodologies they use? Do you have any hard evidence that they are not properly accounting for sources of error or overstating their results?
2) Average them.
The more measurements, the closer the average will be to the truth.
Your comment is a classic phase-2 voter-upper, which was sitting at the top of the thread until I marked it off topic. Apologies for quoting myself, but: After that first wave of comments, we frequently see a second wave of comments objecting in a reflexive way to the first wave. Although they take the opposing position—defending the article and criticizing the comments—it's the same contrarian dynamic, the same mechanism, driving them. Usually the second wave gets upvoted the most, leading to the paradox of the top comment in a thread expressing how bad the thread is, or the most popular comment expressing how wrong the populace is.
Once this subthread was marked off topic, which lowers it on the page, one sees that the top subthreads are all pretty thoughtful. In other words, once you account for the contrarian dynamic (first wave of dismissive comments, second angry wave dismissing the dismissals and getting voted to the top), HN is doing reasonably well in this case. The contrarian dynamic happens in general; it has nothing to do specifically with climate, any more than with race (which was the context in the thread I just linked to).
Genuinely, I think HN is now worse than reddit, only reddit has some actual funny/entertaining comments while HN is just... I don't know low effort tedium pretending to be insight?
Maybe HN got too popular?
It’s hard to say if it’s people espousing heartfelt views, trolls, bots, or who knows what other internet monster?
Not to mention mind reading.
Flatly denying the other side's points isn't contrarianism - at best it's trolling and at worst - willful ignorance.
The worst comments are of the "just asking questions!" type. The asker will preface it with an apology about them being "genuinely curious", and then continue by stating their "concerns" about how the established and agreed upon consensus was reached, and say they "couldn't help but notice" how the "other side" gets "suppressed/censored".
This type of concern-trolling is straight out of grassroots propaganda rulebook (which the asker is either consciously following, or has been a target and victim of themselves), and it's quite depressing how many posters here fall for it and engage the asker in good faith.
I recently learned that some people call these comments and posts "JAQing off"; such a term isn't going to change anyone's mind, but at least there's something to sadly smirk about when I see the same bad-faith questions posted for the umpteenth time.
>Don't be snarky
Welcome to the sad reality.
What's going on here is the afterimage effect. People's general impressions of HN are an afterimage of the things they saw and disliked, which burn deeper into the retina.
The only thing that is questionable in those graphs is the temperature prediction for 2020 to 2025 because we can't see into the future.
This term is always includes not only actual deniers of climate change (rising average surface temperatures), but a lot of other adjacent things, like "why", and "with what effect", and "effective solutions."
To the casual observer it it looks a "science cult." You either believe and abide by it and all its tenants or you're branded a denier, an unbeliever, a heretic.
Not a healthy way to look at science, especially when inevitabley some one thing is later shown to be incorrect and your faith comes crashing down.
God forbid someone should say "I don't agree that we have enough information to establish a global tax policy given the inaccuracy of previous economic models" - they must be a denier!
It takes away from the real hard work people do when a Swedish teenager is paraded around with a scowl and a waving finger that points at everyone but China. I think it's a mistake and sets the whole work back, but what do I know!?
When it's really about science and not taxes/power, I think more people will accept the ideas.
You know she's one voice out of literally millions arguing that we should do something about climate change? Technically Peta throwing paint at people and ecoterrorists are "in our camp," does that all detract from the facts of climate change?
What do you think of a revenue neutral carbon tax? I think they call it "carbon fee and dividend".
If it's only about the science, and the science has been settled for a decade, why do we seem to be getting nowhere? Might there be more than science involved?
> Seems some people simply reject that because the commonly proposed next steps go against their ideology.
It may seem that way, and to some degree it almost certainly is, but what if that isn't an accurate characterization of how it actually is? Might it be worthwhile to consider applying the same intellectual rigor that climate scientists use to the public psychology/discourse aspect of this problem, or is that somehow denialist, or something else? The suggestion always receives downvotes, I'd love to know why.
> When it's really about science
it's about science.
How can researchers say that the rate of change is so much greater now when, not even counting propagation of error, the granularity of measurements pre-nineteenth century is, at best, of the same order-of-magnitude as the WHOLE of the era of modern precision measurements?
EDIT: I realize my question is inconvenient, but downvoting without meaningful response is no way to counter skepticism. This topic gets more religious as time goes on.
Ice core data is correlated with solar activity cycles:
> Those, in turn, must be put into a date range based on some form of (I assume) radiometric dating.
Google can tell you precisely how it is done. Government institutions such as NASA, NOAA or the universities (and equivalents in other countries) generally have reliable information (and the information is straight from the source since most publishing scientists work there).
EDIT: more benefit-of-the-doubt for orders-of-magnitude difference — three instead of six. For example, if we take the yearly average, that’s a sample rate in the micro-hertz. A sample rate of +-80 years is in the nano-hertz range.
CO2 and arctic sea ice graphs' vertical axes don't start at zero, making the change look worse than it really is and meaningless without something to compare PPM or km^2 to.
Other graphs use a sensible difference for the axis because there's no meaningful absolute zero.
It would be nice if they aligned the time axes on all of them for extra readability.
The different start dates are a red flag because they might be cherry picking the start date to avoid something embarrassing before that. I guess they just used easily available data which is fine if they don't have the resources to do it more thoroughly, and they explain that for sea level. But it would be more transparent to show a longer history with clear explanation of how start dates were chosen.
Actually, sea level really needs a longer history because it has been rising since the ice age and it's important to separate that natural increase from the anthropogenic one.